An impacted tooth is one that fails to erupt into the dental arch because of any reason. Because impacted teeth do not erupt, they are retained throughout the individual’s lifetime unless extracted or exposed surgically. Teeth may become impacted because of adjacent teeth, dense overlying bone, excessive soft tissue or a genetic abnormality. Most often, the cause of impaction is inadequate arch lenght and space in which to erupt. When the lenght of the arch is smaller then the diameter of total number of teeth in the arch, impaction occurs.
                Wisdom molars are the most common impacted tooth then other tooth. But other tooth may also fails to erupt in the dental arch like Canine, Premolars or central incisiors. These are most commonly impacted teeth. Here we will talk about wisdom molar impactions only because they are most common and most troubling tooth if remain impacted. Impacted tooth causes problems in different ways which vary from person to person.

Wisdom Molar Impaction :

                             Wisdom teeth are also referred to as third molars and are found in the very back of the mouth. They are the last in the row of teeth in each corner of the mouth. Although rare, sometimes a person will only develop one or two wisdom teeth as opposed to all four. Depending on several factors, when they begin to grow and find their place in the mouth, they may cause problems that are clearly and painfully visible.

Common problems with wisdom teeth include:

  • Impacted teeth
  • Infected teeth and gums
  • Painful pressure sores
  • Tooth, gum and mouth pain
  • Headaches or facial pain

                            Many times your dentist will notice the wisdom teeth coming in before you feel them. He may keep a close watch on them to see if they start to shift, change direction or make their way indirectly to the gum line.
In some cases, wisdom teeth can develop and surface quickly. All may surface at the same time in a straight manner or one or two may come in crooked or half-way. As they make their way through the gum line, you may be able to feel discomfort, slight bleeding and in some cases, pain. If the tooth causes any type of sore or laceration it could be impacted. Impaction can lead to serious problems and complications. Infection can occur if food gets caught inside or around the area where the tooth is trying to come in. The tooth can quickly become infected as well as the surrounding area in the mouth. If the infection spreads anywhere past the entry point, it can be life-threatening. The situation should be monitored closely and the infection must be treated prior to removal of the tooth.
A cyst can also form around the tooth. The cyst acts a protective barrier, preventing the gum line from forming properly. A cyst may be full of infection as well and should be removed carefully after a round of antibiotics as successfully reduced the swelling. Cysts can grow in size very rapidly, so emergency dental care should be instituted.
Another problem an impacted wisdom tooth may cause is that it could put pressure on the existing teeth in the mouth. This can cause them to shift and in some cases crack under pressure. Hairline cracks are prone to cavitiesand eventually lead to rot and infection. That is why it is important to seek dental care as soon as you see that a new wisdom tooth has surfaced.

How Does Wisdom Teeth Extraction Work?

Treating wisdom teeth can be tricky, and depend on several factors. If they are not causing any problems, your dentist may recommend keeping a close eye on them or having a follow-up appointment before your next six-month visit. If they appear to be coming in crooked or are causing discomfort, treatment will likely be removal. The earlier wisdom teeth are detected under the surface of the gum line, the better.
When they first develop, the tissue is often soft and flexible. This means they should be easy to remove without any major complications. The longer they are under the gum line, at the surface or the longer a tooth remains impacted the greater chance that they will be more difficult to remove without any complications. Some are easy to remove and can be done so by a skilled dentist. Depending on the location of the wisdom teeth and the overall oral health of the patient, the procedure can be done in the office under local anesthesia. If there are underlying complicating factors such as previous infection or a tooth is severely impacted under the gum line, an oral surgeon will need to remove it. An oral surgeon will be able to carefully extract the tooth and have the skills and equipment necessary for removal should any complications arise.
In many cases, an oral surgeon will suggest a general anesthesia or other medications that will help you relax or fall asleep during the procedure. This is mainly used to help calm your nerves and ease tension before and during the extraction process. Removal time varies per person.
Generally, it can take up to 15 to 30 minutes to remove all four wisdom teeth as long as they come out easily. Times may be greater if there is other dental work that needs to be done or an infection is found within the socket of the tooth or gum line.
It is important after removal to follow all directions given by your dentist or surgeon precisely. Avoid drinking from straws and be sure to keep the areas where the teeth were removed free of food debris. Your dentist may recommend that you eat soft foods for the first 24 hours or longer, depending on how well you feel your mouth is healing.
Wisdom teeth removal is considered minor surgery but major complications can develop.
Contact your dentist if you experience any of the following after impaction surgery :

  • Fever
  • Severe pain
  • Bleeding